The TU9 Universities also offer the opportunity to complete your doctorate in research training groups, graduate schools or university doctoral programmes.
Research training groups or graduate schools are organized and funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG). A group of researchers study a thematically similar subject with an interdisciplinary focus. Seminars and programmes are offered to doctoral candidates in research training groups.
Graduate schools are broader in scope and more interdisciplinary in nature than the thematically more focused research training groups.
Doctoral programmes have a clearly defined curriculum that prescribes participation in seminars and the production of papers.
Structured programmes have a high degree of funding, support and additional training and are therefore seen as the last and highest level of university education.